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Constitution of the Confederate States of America
We, the people of the Confederate States, each State acting in its sovereign
and independent character, in order to form a permanent federal government,
establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, and secure the blessings
of liberty to ourselves and our posterity--invoking the favor and guidance
of Almighty God--do ordain and establish this Constitution for the Confederate
States of America.
All legislative powers herein delegated shall be vested in a Congress of
the Confederate States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every
second year by the people of the several States; and the electors in each
State shall be citizens of the Confederate States, and have the qualifications
requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature;
but no person of foreign birth, not a citizen of the Confederate States,
shall be allowed to vote for any officer, civil or political, State or
No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained the age
of twenty-five years, and be a citizen of the Confederate States, and who
shall not when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall
Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several
States, which may be included within this Confederacy, according to their
respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number
of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years,
and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all slaves. ,The actual
enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of
the Congress of the Confederate States, and within every subsequent term
of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of
Representatives shall not exceed one for every fifty thousand, but each
State shall have at least one Representative; and until such enumeration
shall be made, the State of South Carolina shall be entitled to choose
six; the State of Georgia ten; the State of Alabama nine; the State of
Florida two; the State of Mississippi seven; the State of Louisiana six;
and the State of Texas six.
When vacancies happen in the representation from any State the executive
authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.
The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers;
and shall have the sole power of impeachment; except that any judicial
or other Federal officer, resident and acting solely within the limits
of any State, may be impeached by a vote of two-thirds of both branches
of the Legislature thereof.
The Senate of the Confederate States shall be composed of two Senators
from each State, chosen for six years by the Legislature thereof, at the
regular session next immediately preceding the commencement of the term
of service; and each Senator shall have one vote.
Immediately after they shall be assembled, in consequence of the first
election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes.
The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration
of the second year; of the second class at the expiration of the fourth
year; and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year; so that
one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation,
or other wise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive
thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature,
which shall then fill such vacancies.
No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained the age of thirty
years, and be a citizen of the Confederate States; and who shall not, then
elected, be an inhabitant of the State for which he shall be chosen.
The Vice President of the Confederate States shall be president of the
Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided.
The Senate shall choose their other officers; and also a president pro
tempore in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise
the office of President of the Confederate states.
The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting
for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President
of the Confederate States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside; and
no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the
Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal
from office, and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust, or
profit under the Confederate States; but the party convicted shall, nevertheless,
be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment according
The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives
shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof, subject to
the provisions of this Constitution; but the Congress may, at any time,
by law, make or alter such regulations, except as to the times and places
of choosing Senators.
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year; and such meeting
shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall, by law, appoint
a different day.
Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications
of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to
do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may
be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner
and under such penalties as each House may provide.
Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members
for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds of the
whole number, expel a member.
Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time
publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require
secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House, on any question,
shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.
Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent
of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place
than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.
The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their
services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the
Confederate States. They shall, in all cases, except treason, felony, and
breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance
at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning
from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall
not be questioned in any other place. No Senator or Representative shall,
during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office
under the authority of the Confederate States, which shall have been created,
or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and
no person holding any office under the Confederate States shall be a member
of either House during his continuance in office. But Congress may, by
law, grant to the principal officer in each of the Executive Departments
a seat upon the floor of either House, with the privilege of discussing
any measures appertaining to his department.
All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives;
but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills.
Every bill which shall have passed both Houses, shall, before it becomes
a law, be presented to the President of the Confederate States; if he approve,
he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it, with his objections,
to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections
at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such
reconsideration, two-thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill,
it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by
which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds
of that House, it shall become a law. But in all such cases, the votes
of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the
persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal
of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President
within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to
him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless
the Congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return; in which case it
shall not be a E law. The President may approve any appropriation and disapprove
any other appropriation in the same bill. In such case he shall, in signing
the bill, designate the appropriations disapproved; and shall return a
copy of such appropriations, with his objections, to the House in which
the bill shall have originated; and the same proceedings shall then be
had as in case of other bills disapproved by the President.
Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of both Houses
may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented
to the President of the Confederate States; and before the same shall take
effect, shall be approved by him; or, being disapproved by him, shall be
repassed by two-thirds of both Houses, according to the rules and limitations
prescribed in case of a bill.
The Congress shall have power-
To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises for revenue, necessary
to pay the debts, provide for the common defense, and carry on the Government
of the Confederate States; but no bounties shall be granted from the Treasury;
nor shall any duties or taxes on importations from foreign nations be laid
to promote or foster any branch of industry; and all duties, imposts, and
excises shall be uniform throughout the Confederate States.
To borrow money on the credit of the Confederate States.
To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States,
and with the Indian tribes; but neither this, nor any other clause contained
in the Constitution, shall ever be construed to delegate the power to Congress
to appropriate money for any internal improvement intended to facilitate
commerce; except for the purpose of furnishing lights, beacons, and buoys,
and other aids to navigation upon the coasts, and the improvement of harbors
and the removing of obstructions in river navigation; in all which cases
such duties shall be laid on the navigation facilitated thereby as may
be necessary to pay the costs and expenses thereof.
To establish uniform laws of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject
of bankruptcies, throughout the Confederate States; but no law of Congress
shall discharge any debt contracted before the passage of the same.
To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix
the standard of weights and measures.
To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current
coin of the Confederate States.
To establish post offices and post routes; but the expenses of the Post
Office Department, after the 1st day of March in the year of our Lord eighteen
hundred and sixty-three, shall be paid out of its own revenues.
To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited
times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective
writings and discoveries.
To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court.
To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas,
and offenses against the law of nations.
To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning
captures on land and water.
To raise and support armies; but no appropriation of money to that use
shall be for a longer term than two years.
To provide and maintain a navy.
To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces.
To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Confederate
States, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions.
To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for
governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the Confederate
States; reserving to the States, respectively, the appointment of the officers,
and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed
To exercise exclusive legislation, in all cases whatsoever, over such district
(not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of one or more States
and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the Government of the
Confederate States; and to exercise like authority over all places purchased
by the consent of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall
be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other
needful buildings; and
To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into
execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution
in the Government of the Confederate States, or in any department or officer
The importation of negroes of the African race from any foreign country
other than the slave holding States or Territories of the United States
of America, is hereby forbidden; and Congress is required to pass such
laws as shall effectually prevent the same.
Congress shall also have power to prohibit the introduction of slaves from
any State not a member of, or Territory not belonging to, this Confederacy.
The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless
when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.
No bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law denying or impairing the
right of property in negro slaves shall be passed.
No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to
the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.
No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State, except
by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses.
No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to
the ports of one State over those of another.
No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in consequence of appropriations
made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures
of all public money shall be published from time to time.
Congress shall appropriate no money from the Treasury except by a vote
of two-thirds of both Houses, taken by yeas and nays, unless it be asked
and estimated for by some one of the heads of departments and submitted
to Congress by the President; or for the purpose of paying its own expenses
and contingencies; or for the payment of claims against the Confederate
States, the justice of which shall have been judicially declared by a tribunal
for the investigation of claims against the Government, which it is hereby
made the duty of Congress to establish.
All bills appropriating money shall specify in Federal currency the exact
amount of each appropriation and the purposes for which it is made; and
Congress shall grant no extra compensation to any public contractor, officer,
agent, or servant, after such contract shall have been made or such service
No title of nobility shall be granted by the Confederate States; and no
person holding any office of profit or trust under them shall, without
the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office,
or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or
prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech,
or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition
the Government for a redress of grievances.
A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State,
the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.
No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the
consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers,
and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated;
and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath
or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and
the persons or things to be seized.
No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime,
unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases
arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual
service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject
for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor be
compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself; nor be
deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law; nor
shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy
and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein
the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously
ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation;
to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process
for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to have the assistance of counsel
for his defense.
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty
dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved; and no fact so
tried by a jury shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the Confederacy,
than according to the rules of common law.
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor
cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Every law, or resolution having the force of law, shall relate to but one
subject, and that shall be expressed in the title.
No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant
letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; make anything but gold and
silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, or
ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts; or grant
any title of nobility.
No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or
duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for
executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imposts,
laid by any State on imports, or exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury
of the Confederate States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision
and control of Congress.
No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty on tonnage,
except on seagoing vessels, for the improvement of its rivers and harbors
navigated by the said vessels; but such duties shall not conflict with
any treaties of the Confederate States with foreign nations; and any surplus
revenue thus derived shall, after making such improvement, be paid into
the common treasury. Nor shall any State keep troops or ships of war in
time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State,
or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or
in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay. But when any river
divides or flows through two or more States they may enter into compacts
with each other to improve the navigation thereof.
The executive power shall be vested in a President of the Confederate States
of America. He and the Vice President shall hold their offices for the
term of six years; but the President shall not be reeligible. The President
and Vice President shall be elected as follows:
Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may
direct, a number of electors equal to the whole number of Senators and
Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but
no Senator or Representative or person holding an office of trust or profit
under the Confederate States shall be appointed an elector.
The electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by ballot for
President and Vice President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant
of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the
person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted
for as Vice President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons
voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice President,
and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify,
and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the Government of. the Confederate
States, directed to the President of the Senate; the President of the Senate
shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open
all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; the person having
the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, if such
number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if
no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest
numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as President,
the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President.
But in choosing the President the votes shall be taken by States-the representation
from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist
of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of
all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives
shall not choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve
upon them, before the 4th day of March next following, then the Vice President
shall act as President, as in case of the death, or other constitutional
disability of the President.
The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice President shall
be the Vice President, if such number be a majority of the whole number
of electors appointed; and if no person have a majority, then, from the
two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice President;
a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number
of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a
But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall
be eligible to that of Vice President of the Confederate States.
The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day
on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same throughout
the Confederate States.
No person except a natural-born citizen of the Confederate; States, or
a citizen thereof at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, or
a citizen thereof born in the United States prior to the 20th of December,
1860, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person
be eligible to that office who shall not have attained the age of thirty-five
years, and been fourteen years a resident within the limits of the Confederate
States, as they may exist at the time of his election.
In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation,
or inability to discharge the powers and duties of said office, the same
shall devolve on the Vice President; and the Congress may, by law, provide
for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the
President and Vice President, declaring what officer shall then act as
President; and such officer shall act accordingly until the disability
be removed or a President shall be elected.
The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation,
which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which
he shall have been elected; and he shall not receive within that period
any other emolument from the Confederate States, or any of them.
Before he enters on the execution of his office he shall take the following
oath or affirmation:
"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute
the office of President of the Confederate States, and will, to the best
of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution thereof."
The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the Confederate
States, and of the militia of the several States, when called into the
actual service of the Confederate States; he may require the opinion, in
writing, of the principal officer in each of the Executive Departments,
upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices; and
he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against
the Confederate States, except in cases of impeachment.
He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate,
to make treaties; provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and
he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate
shall appoint, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges
of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the Confederate States
whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall
be established by law; but the Congress may, by law, vest the appointment
of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone,
in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.
The principal officer in each of the Executive Departments, and all persons
connected with the diplomatic service, may be removed from office at the
pleasure of the President. All other civil officers of the Executive Departments
may be removed at any time by the President, or other appointing power,
when their services are unnecessary, or for dishonesty, incapacity. inefficiency,
misconduct, or neglect of duty; and when so removed, the removal shall
be reported to the Senate, together with the reasons therefor.
The President shall have power to fill all vacancies that may happen during
the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at
the end of their next session; but no person rejected by the Senate shall
be reappointed to the same office during their ensuing recess.
The President shall, from time to time, give to the Congress information
of the state of the Confederacy, and recommend to their consideration such
measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary
occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them; and in case of disagreement
between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them
to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and
other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully
executed, and shall commission all the officers of the Confederate States.
The President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the Confederate
States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for and conviction
of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
The judicial power of the Confederate States shall be vested in one Supreme
Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may, from time to time,
ordain and establish. The judges, both of the Supreme and inferior courts,
shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at stated times,
receive for their services a compensation which shall not be diminished
during their continuance in office.
The judicial power shall extend to all cases arising under this Constitution,
the laws of the Confederate States, and treaties made, or which shall be
made, under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other
public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction;
to controversies to which the Confederate States shall be a party; to controversies
between two or more States; between a State and citizens of another State,
where the State is plaintiff; between citizens claiming lands under grants
of different States; and between a State or the citizens thereof, and foreign
states, citizens, or subjects; but no State shall be sued by a citizen
or subject of any foreign state.
In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls,
and those in which a State shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have
original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme
Court shall have appellate jurisdiction both as to law and fact, with such
exceptions and under such regulations as the Congress shall make.
The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury,
and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall have
been committed; but when not committed within any State, the trial shall
be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.
Treason against the Confederate States shall consist only in levying war
against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort.
No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two
witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.
The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason; but
no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture,
except during the life of the person attainted.
Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acts,
records, and judicial proceedings of every other State; and the Congress
may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such acts, records,
and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.
The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all the privileges and
immunities of citizens in the several States; and shall have the right
of transit and sojourn in any State of this Confederacy, with their slaves
and other property; and the right of property in said slaves shall not
be thereby impaired.
A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime against
the laws of such State, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another
State, shall, on demand of the executive authority of the State from which
he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having jurisdiction
of the crime.
No slave or other person held to service or labor in any State or Territory
of the Confederate States, under the laws thereof, escaping or lawfully
carried into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein,
be discharged from such service or labor; but shall be delivered up on
claim of the party to whom such slave belongs; or to whom such service
or labor may be due.
Other States may be admitted into this Confederacy by a vote of two-thirds
of the whole House of Representatives and two-thirds of the Senate, the
Senate voting by States; but no new State shall be formed or erected within
the jurisdiction of any other State, nor any State be formed by the junction
of two or more States, or parts of States, without the consent of the Legislatures
of the States concerned, as well as of the Congress.
The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules
and regulations concerning the property of the Confederate States, including
the lands thereof.
The Confederate States may acquire new territory; and Congress shall have
power to legislate and provide governments for the inhabitants of all territory
belonging to the Confederate States, lying without the limits of the several
Sates; and may permit them, at such times, and in such manner as it may
by law provide, to form States to be admitted into the Confederacy. In
all such territory the institution of negro slavery, as it now exists in
the Confederate States, shall be recognized and protected by Congress and
by the Territorial government; and the inhabitants of the several Confederate
States and Territories shall have the right to take to such Territory any
slaves lawfully held by them in any of the States or Territories of the
The Confederate States shall guarantee to every State that now is, or hereafter
may become, a member of this Confederacy, a republican form of government;
and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of
the Legislature or of the Executive when the Legislature is not in session)
against domestic violence.
Upon the demand of any three States, legally assembled in their several
conventions, the Congress shall summon a convention of all the States,
to take into consideration such amendments to the Constitution as the said
States shall concur in suggesting at the time when the said demand is made;
and should any of the proposed amendments to the Constitution be agreed
on by the said convention-voting by States-and the same be ratified by
the Legislatures of two- thirds of the several States, or by conventions
in two-thirds thereof-as the one or the other mode of ratification may
be proposed by the general convention-they shall thenceforward form a part
of this Constitution. But no State shall, without its consent, be deprived
of its equal representation in the Senate.
The Government established by this Constitution is the successor of the
Provisional Government of the Confederate States of America, and all the
laws passed by the latter shall continue in force until the same shall
be repealed or modified; and all the officers appointed by the same shall
remain in office until their successors are appointed and qualified, or
the offices abolished.
All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption of
this Constitution shall be as valid against the Confederate States under
this Constitution, as under the Provisional Government.
This Constitution, and the laws of the Confederate States made in pursuance
thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority
of the Confederate States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the
judges in every State shall be bound thereby, anything in the constitution
or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.
The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the
several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both
of the Confederate States and of the several States, shall be bound by
oath or affirmation to support this Constitution; but no religious test
shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust
under the Confederate States.
The enumeration, in the Constitution, of certain rights shall not be construed
to deny or disparage others retained by the people of the several States.
The powers not delegated to the Confederate States by the Constitution,
nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States, respectively,
or to the people thereof.
Adopted unanimously by the Congress of the Confederate States of South
Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas,
sitting in convention at the capitol, in the city of Montgomery, Ala.,
on the eleventh day of March, in the year eighteen hundred and sixty-one.
The ratification of the conventions of five States shall be sufficient
for the establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying
When five States shall have ratified this Constitution, in the manner before
specified, the Congress under the Provisional Constitution shall prescribe
the time for holding the election of President and Vice President; and
for the meeting of the Electoral College; and for counting the votes, and
inaugurating the President. They shall, also, prescribe the time for holding
the first election of members of Congress under this Constitution, and
the time for assembling the same. Until the assembling of such Congress,
the Congress under the Provisional Constitution shall continue to exercise
the legislative powers granted them; not extending beyond the time limited
by the Constitution of the Provisional Government.
President of the Congress.
South Carolina: R. Barnwell Rhett, C. G. Memminger, Wm. Porcher Miles,
James Chesnut, Jr., R. W. Barnwell, William W. Boyce, Lawrence M. Keitt,
T. J. Withers.
Georgia: Francis S. Bartow, Martin J. Crawford, Benjamin H. Hill, Thos.
R. R. Cobb.
Florida: Jackson Morton, J. Patton Anderson, Jas. B. Owens.
Alabama: Richard W. Walker, Robt. H. Smith, Colin J. McRae, William
P. Chilton, Stephen F. Hale, David P. L,ewis, Tho. Fearn, Jno. Gill Shorter,
J. L. M. Curry.
Mississippi: Alex. M. Clayton, James T. Harrison, William
S. Barry, W. S. Wilson, Walker Brooke, W. P. Harris, J. A. P. Campbell.
Louisiana: Alex. de Clouet, C. M. Conrad, Duncan F. Kenner, Henry Marshall.
Texas: John Hemphill, Thomas N. Waul, John H. Reagan, Williamson S.
Oldham, Louis T. Wigfall, John Gregg, William Beck Ochiltree.
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